The Adventures of Greg Spence Wolf

Unequal Access to Education in the USA 

School Law Research Paper 

Greg Spence Wolf 

Unequal Access to Education in the USA 

August 26, 2017 

City University -Tacoma 

Alt Routes to Certification 

EDU 321 School Law for Teachers 

Professor Thom Dramer 

Abstract 

Unequal Access to Education in the United States of America 

Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution grants Congress the power to collect taxes provide for the general Welfare of the United States. 

Therefore funding education through taxes is constitutional. 

Amendment 14, Article 1 of the US constitution states, “nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” 

Therefore denying equal access to education is unconstitutional. 

Not all Americans have enjoyed equal protection under the law or equal access to education. This paper focuses on two cases that set major precedents that influenced the law and future court decisions for decades. One ruling Plessy vs Ferguson denied equality to African-Americans and set a precedent that discrimination was allowed by law. 

The later decision, Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka Kansas reversed this flawed decision previous case and established the precedent that discrimination is not legal in the USA. 

“Segregated public schools are not equal and cannot be made equal.”1 was the opinion of the Supreme court on May 17, 1954 when they decided unanimously on Brown vs The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas to forbid school segregation in the United States. 

This case came from five groups of plaintiffs from the States of Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware and the District of Columbia. They were represented by the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund. 2(http://www.naacpldf.org/case/brown-v-board-education). 

In the ruling Chief Justice Earl Warren pointed out that: “Education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments.” It is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment.”3 

In the court's opinion “Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken 

to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.” 

He concluded with a question: 

“Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities?” 

And an answer: 

“We believe that it does.”4 

Summary of the five cases: 

Brown v. Board of Education: 

“The plaintiffs were Negro children of elementary school age residing in Topeka. They brought this action,” because “of a Kansas statute which,” permitted “cities of more than 15,000 population to maintain separate school facilities for negro and white students.” 5. So, “The Topeka Board of Education elected to establish segregated elementary schools. The three-judge District Court, convened” and 6(28 U.S.C. §§ 2281 and 2284), 

found that segregation in public education has a detrimental effect upon Negro children, but denied relief on the ground that the Negro and white schools were substantially equal with respect to buildings, transportation, curricula, and educational qualifications of teachers.”7 

Briggs v. Elliott: 

The plaintiffs were Negro children of both elementary and high school age. The United States District Court for the Eastern District of South Carolina found that the Negro schools were inferior to the white schools, and ordered the defendants to begin immediately to equalize the facilities. But the court sustained the validity of the contested provisions and denied the plaintiffs admission to the white schools during the equalization program. 8. This Court vacated the District Court's judgment and remanded the case for the purpose of obtaining the court's views on a report filed by the defendants concerning the progress made in the equalization program.” 9 

Davis v. County School Board: 

“The plaintiffs were Negro children of high school age residing in Prince Edward County. They brought this action” because, “of provisions in the state constitution and statutory code which require the segregation of Negroes and whites in public schools. The three-judge District Court, convene,d” an, “denied the requested relief. The court found the Negro school inferior in physical plant, curricula, and transportation, and ordered the defendants forthwith to provide substantially equal curricula and transportation and to proceed with all reasonable diligence and dispatch to remove the inequality in physical plant. But, as in the South Carolina case, the court sustained the validity of the contested provisions and denied the plaintiffs admission to the white schools during the equalization program.10 10(103 F.Supp. 337.) 

Gebhart v. Belto: 

“The plaintiffs were Negro children of both elementary and high school age. They brought this action in the Delaware Court of Chancery,” because “of provisions in the state constitution and statutory code which require the segregation of Negroes and whites in public schools. 11 

The Chancellor gave judgment for the plaintiffs and ordered their immediate admission to schools previously attended only by white children, on the ground that the Negro schools were inferior with respect to teacher training, pupil-teacher ratio, extracurricular activities, physical plant, and time and distance involved in travel. 12(87 A.2d 862.) The Chancellor also found that segregation itself results in an inferior education for Negro children, but did not rest his decision on that ground. The Chancellor's decree was affirmed by the Supreme Court of Delaware, which intimated, however, that the defendants might be able to obtain a modification of the decree after equalization of the Negro and white schools had been accomplished. The defendants, contending only that the Delaware courts had erred in ordering the immediate admission of the Negro plaintiffs to the white schools, applied to this Court for certiorari. The writ was granted, 12 

These decisions reversed Plessy v. Ferguson which was decided on On May 19, 1896 by the Supreme Court. In that case they ruled on a Louisiana law that required separate railway cars for blacks and whites. “In 1892, Homer A. Plessy, a man with one-eighth Negro blood who lived in New Orleans challenged that city's right to segregate public transportation by riding in a Whites Only rail car. The Louisiana state courts ruled against Plessy, and his subsequent appeal to the U. S. Supreme Court was denied in 1896.13 Justice Henry Billings Brown wrote the decision. He conceded that the 14th Amendment intended to establish absolute equality for the races before the law. Then he claimed: 

It could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color 

or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality 

or a commingling of the two races unsatisfactory to either." 

In my opinion Billings is saying that 'white people have the privilege to deny 

black people their rights if they find it unsatisfactory.'14 

The Legal Defense Fund's victory in 1954 did not end segregation or the Supreme Court's involvement in the issue. In Griffin v. County School Bd. of Prince Edward County, the Supreme Court gave relief to the plaintiffs when Prince Edward School District school tried to evade the Warren Court's decision by sending white kids to private schools that discriminated. The court ruled that, “the closing of the Prince Edward County public schools while at the same time giving tuition grants and tax concessions to assist white children in private segregated schools denied petitioners the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.”15 

When asked by Justice Felix Frankfurter during the argument what he meant by "equal," Thurgood Marshall replied, "Equal means getting the same thing, at the same time, and in the same place."16 

References: 

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483) 

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483)(Del.Const., Art. X, § 2; Del.Rev.Code § 2631 (1935) 

Griffin v. School Board of Prince Edward County. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 25, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1963/592 

http://www.naacpldf.org/case/brown-v-board-education Retrieved August 21, 2017 

http://www.naacpldf.org/thurgood-marshall retrieved August 24, 2017 

https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html98 F.Supp. 529. Retrieved August 21, 2017 

https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html, retrieved, August 21, 2017 

(98 F.Supp. 797 / https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html#1 

retrieved August 21, 2017) 

Plessy v. Ferguson. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 20, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/163us537 

1(Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483) 

2http://www.naacpldf.org/case/brown-v-board-education Retrieved August 21, 2017 

3(Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 21, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483) 

4https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html Retrieved August 21, 2017 

5 https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html, retrieved, August 21, 2017 

6 https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html, retrieved, August 21, 2017 

7(98 F.Supp. 797 / https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html#1 retrieved August 21, 2017) 

8 https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html98 F.Supp. 529. Retrieved August 21, 2017 

9https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html retrieve August 21, 2017 

10 https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html(under 28 U.S.C. §§ 2281 and 2284 Retrieved August 21, 2017 

11 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483)(Del.Const., Art. X, § 2; Del.Rev.Code § 2631 (1935)) 

12 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1). (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483) 

13(Plessy v. Ferguson. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 20, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/163us537) 

14Plessy v. Ferguson. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 25, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/163us537 

15Griffin v. School Board of Prince Edward County. (n.d.). Oyez. Retrieved August 25, 2017, from https://www.oyez.org/cases/1963/592 

16 http://www.naacpldf.org/thurgood-marshall retrieved August 24, 2017

Monday, October 8, 2035 "What I learned in School Today" 

Monday October 8, 2035 

Language Arts                                       Marilyn Stalter 
Grammar - a set of rules used in a language to maintain consistency in meaning so that people can understand each other. 

She typed grammar into a search field on the Interactive Board.  
She chose this definition from the search results for us to discuss. 

In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. 
Grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 
Wikipedia › wiki › Grammar(05.20.2016)  

Subject, Verb, Direct Object  
English: We ate food 
Spanish: Comimos comida. 
Subject, Verb, Indirect Object, Direct Object. 
English: We ate Abe's food 
Comido's comida de Abe 
A subject is a noun or pronoun 
A verb is an action 
An object is the noun that the sentence is directed at 
An indirect object is an object that is related to the direct object.  

10/8/2035   Drama Class                    Ms Catherine Nemo 
Discussion question: What kind of literary characters can you identify and give one example. 

Chief said "A Leader" Ms Nemo asked him who was a good fictional leader and he said Captain Jean Luc Picard of the USS Enterprise on Star Trek: The Next Generation. 
Maria said "Hero" and gave Martin Luther King Junior Jr as an example 
Ibrahim said Sidekick (Robin) 
Amar said, "Comic Relief: Rocket the Racoon on Guardians of the Galaxy" 
Michelle said, "The Healer or doctor The Doctor on Voyager 
Barry said "The Unsung Heroes" like the Fix it guy Scotty on Star Trek 

Father and mother figures:  
Worry Woman Commander Adama and Mary Poppins 
I said, "Romantic leads (Han Solo and Princess Leia)" 
Bad guy: Lex Luthor 
Bad guy lackeys 
Michelle said "Badguy turns good like Darth Vader 
  
Gary Lobo said, "Bad guy you sometimes need on your side (Dr Doom)" 
Geraldine raised her hand Speech giver (Stan on South park) and Yoda 
Zi Liang, Superhero (Spider Man) 
Kendra said, "Wisecracker (Peter Parker as Spider Man or Tony Stark as iron Man" 
Rogue (Han Solo) 
Little Bear said, Self made man (The Great Gatsby) 
Mean boss (on the Odd Squad) 

Nanook said, The Commentator: Fred in Big Hero Six.  
Hawkeye on MASH 
Thief  

Jamal: "Old storyteller, teacher or mentor like Doc Brown in Back to the Future." 
Jolene said, "Outsider who is not trusted but who is actually very trustworthy like Superman in The Man of Steel" 
 

Sunday, October 7, 2035 introducing Leo Pumalynx Gatoliger The Electric Kitty Cat From Outer Space 

Sunday, October 7, 2035 

If her were played by a famous actor it would be: Michael J Fox 
Leon Pumalynx Gatoliger. King of the concrete jungle. Leon was born on Leontine, an abandoned artificial space station that was built around the Leonardo Asteroid, 987,654,321 years ago. He has retractable steel claws,  He is two feet long, has four legs, eats liquid metal solutions and fiber and other metal based life forms. He doesn't personally. He is a scrapatarian. 
His microchips help him adapt by 3D printing microscopic mechanical cells to build his  replacement parts. He also 3D prints parts for the ship. Mostly paint.  
He is very agile and can crawl into small places. He doesn't have fingers so he uses voice commands on computers, which requires him to memorize hundreds of verbal shortcuts. When doing repairs he uses a claw modified multitool. 
 He could use the multitool to type, but he doesn't want to.  
Born, or more accurately, reproductively manufactured on Leontine. 
His species reproduced by being able to 3D print it's own brain and circuitry. The new brains would be hardwired with the newest data. These brains were usually installed when sensors detected a brain malfunction. But occasionally these brains would adapt by consuming light and assembling it's own 3d printing of parts 

The LEOS were originally designed by the Gronigals to service their ships. Leon continuously is cleaning the Couth Lizzard. 

If he could be a superhero, he would be Cool Cat. in the Amazing Creatures Universe on CPN. 

When his planet was discovered by the Pan Planetia seven. The Leonites kept trying to ccommunicate with the ships, and not the animals. They rubbed up against them. ETC. 


By Billy Boren

Saturday, October 6, 2035 Introducing "Dr Scorpious - Half Dr, Half alchemist - All Scorpion" 

Saturday, October 6, 2035                                     Unassigned Homework
Healer doctor - fixes bodies (Scorpius) (Doctor Grumpy)  
If he were played by a Hollywood Actor it would be Lewis Black 
Six legs, three toes each, each toe is a stinger that can inject chemicals into the ground, plants, machinery and if necessary an animal's skin.  
Originally Scorpionites developped these chemicals for self defense. Chemicals that can numb animals, but each gland ejects a different chemical. 
Eighteen different injectors that are also influenced by diet. Scorpionites developed intelligent digestion. Literally their brains grew in their stomachs instead of their head and can intelligently digest and synthesize chemicals. 
Their tail has a thumper that also at birth is a sharp knife. It dulls over time. But grows harder. The thumpers drove away threats.  
Scorpionites are 5-8 inches long and they build planned gardens as their habitat. Their habitat is more alive than inert. In order to eat they sample and digest foods all day formulating fertilizers needed for their crops. They also used their crops to produce oil to power the heat in their environment. Each living pod completely reused or traded it's own waste for survival. This closed loop enabled their species to survive and evolve on the abandoned Gronigal World. 3.14159265359 
 

Friday, October 5, 2035 - What's the difference? 

Friday, October 5, 2035                                     Language Arts Class              Marilyn Stalter
Author: Billy Boren

Learning Target - To walk in another's shoes. To see with another's eyes. To hear with another's ears.

Freaky free write Friday -What's the difference? 
Try to rewrite something you've heard, read or written in a different language. 
Write your story from a different point of view. 
A different country, gender or animal. 
What if this had happened instead of that. 
What if it had happened in another country, state, city or planet? 
What if everything was the same but one thing was different? 
What if cats were man's best friends instead of dogs? 
Look at yourself from another's perspective? 

How do dogs think about people? 
Dogs have no color vision  
Dogs can hear high pitches 
Dogs can identify an animal from it's urine smell 
  
If they could turn their thoughts into words they would probably say 
"I like human food, even the stuff that they put on the floor" 
"I wish that I could learn to use a can opener. 
"We used to be wolves, but then we found out that you have couches." 
Source: meme I have seen on my Facebook newsfeed." 
They're a tall mammal with different kinds of legs that are up instead of in front. 
They smell unnatural, but pleasant because they are usually clean., except sometimes they make my nostrils burn. 
They are friendly more often than not, but not all are trustworthy, can be very scary and mean sometimes. 
Terrible source of protein 
Next I have to learn how to translate these ideas into a phrase that Scooby Doo would say. 
 

Thursday, October 4, 2035 "Writing a Song with Guest Lecturer Susan Cracker" 

Thursday, October 4, 2035 
Learning Target: Write a song together 
Prompt: Provided by guest lecturer/singer/songwriter and veterinarian Dr Susan Cracker. 
    Today who works as a Dr of Veterinary Medicine  who works at the VA hospital treating the service dogs.  
    Ms Stalter introduced her as Dr Susan Cracker, a veterinarian who was also a songwriter. She has found a very helpful way to combine the two." 

Ms Cracker said: 
    "I never would have made it through college if I wasn't also a songwriter. For two reasons, I paid my college bills with money I made as a singer, and I used poetry and songwriting as a method to memorize all the data I needed for my tests. 
    Then Dr Cracker strapped her guitar around her back and said, "How are you all doing today?" 
    About five people said "good." 
    She then said, "Sounds like a few of you are good. I bet the rest of you are awesome and were just too modest to admit it. I'm going to repeat the question and then I want all of you who are good to say "Good!" And all of you who are awesome to say "Awesome!"  
    "Here goes. How are you all doing today?" 
    We all said "Awesome" 
    Then Ms Cracker started playing this catchy blues riff. She said, "Raise your hand if you can tell me what kind of song I am playing." 
    She pointed to Jolene who said, "It's a blues song." 
    Then Ms Cracker said, "What is the name of this song?" 
    Barry raised his hand and said, "That same blues riff they use for any other blues song." 
    So she sang: 
    "I'm playing the blues, that same blues riff they use for any other blues song" 

    Ms Cracker then said, "Everyone repeat after me:" 
"I'm singing the blues to 
That same old blues riff they use for any other blues song/" 

    A few of us sang along. So she said, "These cliché twelve bar blues songs can be very repetitive, which makes them easy to learn quickly. So this time everyone can sing along." 

    She then said that it is repetitive this song could get very boring fast, So we need to write a few more lines. Raise your hand if you know why people sing the blues." 
    I raised my hand and said, "Because they are poor." 
    Maria said, "Because they are lonely." 
    Amar said, "Because they have been driven from their homes by war." 

    She then started singing again,  
"I'm singing, because I'm lonely and poor, and I lost my home in the war. (now you all do it)" 
Then a bunch of us sang along with her. 
"I'm singing the blues because I am lonely and poor and I lost my home in the war."

Wednesday, October 3, 2035 

Wednesday, October 3, 2035                               Language Arts 

Learning Target: Use questions to create an outline for a story. 
1) Who? 
The subject of the story or characters 
EX: The human race  

According to Whom? 
Narrator: The character telling the story 
EX: An alien observing our planet from billions of miles away 

What happened? 
Plot. IE Who did what with what?  
We heated up our planet with carbon 

Where? 
Setting: 
Ex: Milky Way Galaxy, The Solar System, Earth 

When? 
First: 
Then: 
Which led to a problem: 
Then a solution: 
And the end. 
How is the problem solved? 
How much detail do you want to provide? 

Why are you writing 
What do you not want to do in your story 

Human beings will save the planet in one of three ways. They will learn to live with less stuff, use energy and technology more efficiently or they will become extinct, therefore no longer releasing carbon into the atmosphere. 

Science:    Francois Gonzalez 
Learning Target        Write a sequence of events along a timeline with cause and effect. 
Teachers Example: I got a bachelors degree in education with a minor is science. After I received my degree I was able to apply for graduate school. Then I got a masters' in education. Finally I got a job as your teacher.
 

Tuesday, October, 2, 2035 

(Talk) Tuesday, October 2, 2035               Language Arts             Ms Stalter

Karl  
2016 Trump elected President 
2017 USA invades Libya calling it WWIII and declaring he will rout out ISIS from the whole muslim world. 
2020 US military organizes a union. Vows to only shoot in self defense until demands are met." 
Trump loses election to film maker Michael Moore.  

Barry said: 
2018 Draft instituted. All males and females 21-31 recruited. And are college educated before they are sent to the front. Higher education is free and mandatory. 
2021 My Dad drafted. 2022 my Dad shot by the Tripoli Assassins. 
2023 - Leak from Blackwater security corporation suggests that the Tripoli Assasins were really employees of the Blackwater Corporation contracted independently by Trump to provoke the military into a fight with locals. 
2026 Trumps financial records leaked by Anonymous and reveal that he owns stock in all major American weapons contractors including Boeing. 
Maria said, July 4, 2016, asteroid lands in the Mediteranean Sea causing flooding throughout southern Europe and Northern Africa. American troops and Muslims start working together to help with rescue without orders because all electricity and communication to the outside world is flooded and shorted out for 7-34 hours.  
July 7, American bomber pilot Daniel Montegro refuse to carry out orders  to bomb flooded areas, knowing Americans might be there. 
"My mothers birthday is february 14, followed by my brothers on march 17 and my dad's on April 1, " 
Michelle said: 
2024 Vice President Bernie Sanders runs for office and wins. Escalates WWIII. American military goes on strike. Bernie Sanders agrees to present their demands to congress instead of court martialing. 

Chief said, "1888 Nanuk Petrov Mahiga drafted into Russian Army. " 
1889 - dies in combat. Russian government asks for another son Seal'th'he  
Mahigan Nomadic Clan people flee west to Alaska across Bering Strait. Following he path of the snowy owl. Nanook Vladimir Mahiga found a russian language book in his brothers belongings and started to memorize the Russian language book. Nanook Petrov was forced to learn the Russian language for army duty in the ... war. The brother wrote a code with sketches of indigenous objects that had a similar pronunciation of the letter in Russian.   
1890 - Mahigan Clan moves across the Aleutian Peninsula 
1910 They paid taxes on their land by working as commercial fishermen. 
Kendra said, "PEMDAS"

Monday, October 1, 2035 "Timeline" by Billy Boren 

Monday, October 1, 2035                              Language Arts Mari alyn Stalter 

Language Arts Board Notes: 
Make a timeline of your life. 
Start with a list of important events in your life and don't worry about the order. 
When you have 6-10 events, flip your paper over and draw a line with marks to note different years in the order that they happened. 
You may include events that you experienced or that you remember happening. 
Then Ms Stalter drew her life timeline. 
2000   2004                           2018                            2022       2023 
Birth   First day of preschool HIgh schol graduation marriage college masters degree 
|--------|------------------------|-------------------------|------------------... death 

Then Ms Stalter told us to write a timeline of our own lives. 

Billy Boren- 
Born 9.11.24/ 
 summer 2027- Oldest memory - playing on a swing set in park, hot summer day/ 
3rd grade - first kiss Linda Marie Sanchez, Mr Gately changed seating arrangement after that- haven't been kissed since 
played with after school soccer team at Rosa Parks Elementary, Seattle, WA 
7.11.28 moved to phoenix/  
8.11.32 moved to Seattle / 
8.11.35 moved to Alaska  
2034-2035 fourth grade - piano lessons 

August 2035  met first wolf 

September 1?, 2035 - saw wolf find home 
September 2, 2035 - wolf ran away from reserve with husky chasing her 
September 6, wolf returns with friend/maybe mate. 
september 8, a bunch of dogs and wolves are heard barking and howling near Mahigan  Reserve, Arctic Wolve's mate seems to be fighting them off. It's as if every canine in thee county has a crush on this wolf. 

 

Sunday, September 30, 2035 "Introducing Gemona and Gemane - engine mechanics of the Couth Lizzard" by Billy Boren 

Sunday, September 30, 2035 

Repair people 
-Gemona & Gemane Terranissimo. Male twins. They constantly argue while cooking, fixing stuff and playing games, but constantly use each other's ideas too. They are from the Geminista system which has two suns and two inhabited planets.  

On Geminista, arguing is viewed as a dance rather than a fight. People argue together to exercise their brains, learn new knowledge and recreate their environment. You only lose an argument when you lose your arguing partner. 
On Gemono people predict the future as a hobby.  

Gemona and Gemone won a contest where they predicted the development of propulsion technology. They were 99.02% correct in their predictions.  
They were nicknamed "The Rarely Wrong Team," because no one had predicted that accurately in the contest before.

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© 2012 Greg Spence Wolf - gregspencewolf@gmail.com